Punched tape (punched tape) is an obsolete medium in the form of paper, nitrocellulose or acetilcellûloznoj tape with holes. The first tape was used since the mid-19th century telegraphy, holes in them were placed in 5 rows of data, use Baudot code.
In the middle of the Ribbon is a track with a small perforation, the so called "transport track. It serves to move the tape using the gear. < br/> < br/> through simple input/output devices, punched tape spread on computers. Recent computer punched tape had a width of 7 or 8 series and used to write the ASCII encoding. There were bands and with a different number of rows (even with the 2 rows). Used in ultra mobile personal computers for information and input/output to control the machines until the mid-1980 's. Were replaced by magnetic data carriers.
Punched card (perf map, punched card, from LAT. perforo-probivaû and LAT. charta is a sheet of papyrus; paper) is a media device, designed for use in automatic data processing systems. Made of thin cardboard, card provides information to the presence or absence of holes in certain positions of the cards.
Punch cards for the first time began to be used in weaving Jacquard (1808) to control the patterns on the fabric. In computer punch cards were first used in "intelligent machines" the collegiate Adviser Sergei Korsakoff (1832), mechanical devices for information retrieval and classification of records. Punch cards are also planned to be used in the analytical machine Babbage. At the end of the 19th century began to use punched cards to process the results of population censuses in the United States (see tab Hollerita).
There were many different deck of cards; the most common was "IBM format", introduced in 1928, was 12 rows and 80 columns card size 7 x 3 in. (187.325 x 82.55 mm), thickness of 0.007 inch maps (0.178 mm). Originally the corners were pointy, and the 1964 g.-skruglënnye (However, in the Soviet Union and later used the card with neskruglënnymi corners).
Along with the release of the first American commercial computer, UNIVAC I (1951) in the IT industry era of tape. Pioneer, as usual, again became IBM, then "hauled" others. Magnetic tape namatyvalas′ open on the coils and a very thin strip of plastic, coated with a magnetosensible substance. The machine recorded and read the data using special magnetic heads embedded in the drive coils. The tape was widely used in many models of computers (especially the mainframes and mini-computers) until the 1980 's, not yet invented the tape cartridges.
In 1963, IBM introduced the first hard disk, removable disk, the IBM 1311. It was a set of interchangeable discs. Each set consisted of six discs with a diameter of 14 inches, containing up to 2 MB of information. In the 1970 's many hard drives, for example, DEC RK05 disk sets are maintained, especially often used manufacturers of minicomputers to software sales.
In the 1960 's, the manufacturers of computer hardware have learned to put rolls of magnetic tape in tiny plastic cartridges. From its predecessors, bobbins, they were long-life, portability and convenience. They were the most popular in the 1970 's and 1980 's. as reels, cartridges were very flexible media: If you want to write lots of information, the cartridge simply display more tapes. Today tape cartridges type 800 GB LTO Ultrium-are used for large-scale server support, although in recent years their popularity has fallen due to the greater convenience of migrating the data from the hard drive to the hard drive.
The tape drive (from streamer), the tape drive is a storage device on the principle of magnetic recording tape media, sequential access to data on the principle is similar to domestic tape recorder.
Developer of PC-Henry Edward Roberts (Henry Edward Roberts), an American entrepreneur, engineer and physician. < br/> < br/> believed this system led to the personal computer revolution a few years later: a tyre designed for the machine, has become the de facto standard in the form of the S-100 bus. < br/> < br/> Computer sold in the collection for $ 621. either as a set of parts for the Assembly via the magazine Popular Electronics for $ 439. The developers thought that will sell only a few hundred such machines enthusiasts, and were surprised when it turned out that sold several thousand for the first month.
In the 1970 's due to the relatively low cost of the popularity of personal computers. However, existing methods of data storage, many were not affordable. One of the first PC, MITS Altair shipped and no media to record information. Users enter the program with the help of special toggle switches on the front panel. Then, at the dawn of the "PC", users often had to literally embed into the computer slips with handwritten programs. Later programmes were distributed in hard copy via paper magazines.
1967-Alan Shugart led the team that developed the IBM laboratory drives, which created floppy disks. David Noble (Engl. David Noble), one of the senior engineers working under his leadership, offered a floppy disk (floppy disk with a diameter of 8 prototype) and protective jacket with braided. < br/> < br/> in 1971, the first diskette IBM. It was covered with a magnetic substance 8-inch floppy disk, placed in a plastic case. Users quickly learned that to load the data into the computer's floppy drives faster, cheaper and more compact than a stack of punched cards. In 1976, one of the founders of the floppy, Alan Shugart, offered its new format-5.25-inches. In that size existed until the late 1980 's, until the 3.5-inch floppy disks Sony.